Squalene is a major component of the hydrolipidic skin barrier as well as the human sebum.
Squalene is a Triterpenoid chemically 2,6,10,15,19,23-Hexamethyltetracosa-[2,6,10,15,19,23]-hexaene.
The six double bonds are all in all-trans configuration. The molecule is composed of six Isoprene units. Squalene is also known as Spinacene.
Squalene plays a dominant role in biosynthesis of sterols.
It was discovered in 1906 by a Japanese chemist Mitsumaru Tsujimoto.
He established its structure 10 years later:
Squalene is widely found in nature and sources include olives and wheat germ oil. However, the largest concentration of Squalene is from deep sea shark liver oil.
Squalene is produced from sharks that are caught as a by product of fishing nets
The human body also contains 5 to 8 % of this substance in human sebum which helps to keep the skin moist and free of dryness several human organs also contain Squalene.
Squalene is produced by the human liver. Insufficient Squalene normally produced and secreted in sebum leads to rough skin, which is susceptible to cause aging and dryness.
Squalene has also been shown to help wound healing, to enhance the immune system and to strengthen the resistance to cancer.
In addition Squalene has the bactericidal effects common to terpenes.
Since ages Squalene has been taken orally in order to treat diseases.
Here are some Squalene functions seen in articles or publications:
Squalene as a kind of terpenes showed an excellent healing function and preventive action against ulcer when oral administration was made in an experiment with guinea pigs. And, no harmful after-effect was observed.
There are three successive reports at the international scientific societies in recent years concerning anti-cancer functions of Squalene.
a) The 4th International Symposium of Cancer Prevention and Discovery (July 26-Aug 1, 1970, London)
Dr. T. IKEGAWA (National Institute of Cancer Centre) reported that high purity Squalene would show an efficacy in reducing tissue of cancer, in lengthening life and in preventing cancer implantation.
b) The 4th World Conference of Cryosurgery Treatment (Sept 17-20, 1980, San Remo)
In the sectional meeting of immunity, Dr. T. OKUMA et al (Cancer Institute of Hokushin General Hospital) reviewed that in the course of cancer treatment, cryosurgery used together with Squalene obtained an excellent treatment efficacy by strengthening freezing immunity.
Still more, being unpublished, they obtained the test results in increasing immuno-competent cells such as B lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, macrophage etc… by Squalene administration, thus, it was said that anti-cancer function of Squalene would also be due to its immune activated efficacy.
c) The cancer Academy of Japan (Nov., 1981, Sapporo)
One report was made at the conference to show that vitamin D2 and glucocorticoid (adrenocorticoid) as metabolic substances form Squalene had indicated an anti-cancer effect by inducing differentiation of cancer cells under a state of dedifferentiation.
Hepatic disease recovering function:
Both Dr H. ITAKURA (Tokyo University) and Dr H. HOSHINO (Fukuoka University) reviewed that it was effective with applying Squalene to the treatment of hepatic diseases.
Tuberculosis disease healing function:
In the era of 1935-1944 when there was no effective method of treatment for tuberculosis disease; Dr K KONOUE (Konoue Hospital) made administration of Squalene to many patients to have had excellent effects as if it was a specific medicine for this disease. It was reported in the academic magazines and medical articles.
The wide range of such applications includes not only pulmonary tuberculosis but also tuberculosis pleurisy, peritonitis, meningitis, lymphadenitis, tuberculosis of the larynx, tuberculosis of the spine, costal caries, tuberculosis of the skin and furthermore, other than tuberculosis diseases like many kinds of skin diseases and diabetes mellitus.
Anti-true fungus function:
According to Dr N. KUMANO (Oita Medical College), in their study, Squalene indicates anti-true fungus function in vitro. Especially, it enhances remarkably an efficacy of antibiotics when applied together for wide range purposes.
Stimulating function of milk secretion:
In the experiments using rats, administration of Squalene increases milk secretion.
In addition to the above mentioned, there are literatures which report an increase of Squalene under serum level, in the case of patients with acute influenza and also an increase on quantity of Squalene in the epidermis, as index of judging nutritious conditions.